Knowing whether it is a cold or allergies can help you get the treatment you need and avoid all the stuff you don’t need.
What causes colds?
Colds are caused by viruses. These viruses are easily transferred by breathing them in through your nose or by touching something.
As it is impossible to tell who around you might be coming down with a cold, your main defense is to not let your body get run down and to wash your hands frequently. Hand washing is particularly important given the fact that viruses can live on a door handle for up to 24 hours.
What causes allergies?
Pollen, mold, dust mites, or animal dander could trigger a reaction after breathing them in. Alternatively, it could also be a food allergy from something you ate.
Regardless of the trigger, once you are exposed your immune system kicks into overdrive. The next thing you know, your nose is congested and you are coughing.
Colds or Allergies: Five Ways to Tell
While a stuffy or runny nose and sneezing are the main symptoms of a cold or allergies, the following five symptoms can help to determine which it really is.
1. Sore Throat
Sore throats are common with colds. Often, it may start as a sore throat before your nose ever starts to run.
In contrast, sore throats rarely happen with allergies. Thus, if you have a sore throat then chances are that it is a cold.
2. Itchy Eyes
Itchy eyes generally do not occur with colds. Hence, if your eyes are itchy then it is probably an allergic reaction.
While a cough can occur with a cold or allergies, it is more common with colds. Sometimes, these coughs may persist for weeks even after your cold symptoms have resolved.
4. Duration of Symptoms
Most colds last three to 10 days. In contrast, allergies may persist for weeks or months. Thus, if your stuffed up nose isn’t going away, then chances are that you have allergies.
5. Time of the Year
If your symptoms always seem to happen at the same time every year, then you are probably suffering from seasonal allergies. In contrast, colds are more random. Colds tend to occur when your body is run down and you have been exposed to other people with colds.
How do you treat a cold?
For the common cold, getting enough sleep is paramount for your body to fight off the virus. In addition, studies show that vitamin C, zinc and probiotics may also help you to recover more quickly.
With colds, prevention is key. The best ways to prevent colds is to get plenty of sleep, manage stress, wash your hands regularly, and minimize exposure to people with colds.
For example, studies show that if you are not getting enough sleep, you are three times more likely to get a cold. Likewise, reducing stress through meditation can cut your cold risk in half.
How do you treat allergies?
With allergies it is important to identify your triggers. When attacks do occur, traditional treatment includes over-the-counter antihistamines, decongestants, or nasal steroids.
An even better treatment strategy is to reprogram your immune system not to react in the first place. For example, some studies suggest that probiotics may help to re-train your immune system.
If allergies are making your life miserable, you can take hope from the people living in Crete. As you may know, Crete is a small Greek island in the Mediterranean that is also the legendary birthplace of Zeus.
What is most remarkable is that people living in Crete rarely suffer from allergies. As researchers have studied this phenomenon, they have concluded it is the traditional Mediterranean diet that protects them from allergies.
The traditional Mediterranean diet is not an all you can eat pizza and pasta diet. Rather, the traditional Mediterranean diet is mostly fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish and olive oil.
Complications of a Cold or Allergies
If things don’t quickly improve, get your healthcare provider involved. Both a cold or allergies can progress to asthma, ear infections or a sinus infection.
In rare cases, colds can even weaken your body to the point where a heart attack could occur. For example, studies show that 14% of all heart attack deaths originate from an upper respiratory tract infection.
Take Home Message
The take away message is that a cold or allergies can usually be diagnosed based on your symptoms. Once you know what it is, then you can get the treatment you need and everything you don’t need.
Fortunately, a healthy dose of “lifestyle medicine” can prevent both conditions from ever happening. Lifestyle medicine includes eating real food, being physically active, connecting with others in a meaningful way, embracing stress and getting restorative sleep at night.
Dr. John Day is a cardiologist at the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute. To learn more, please visit Dr. Day on his website by clicking here.